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The Unvented Crawlspace
The steps below outline how to convert a crawlspace from an inefficient vented space to a sealed and insulated (unvented) space. Insulating crawl spaces addresses the inefficiencies and moisture problems that exist in many vented crawlspaces.
STEP 1: Check for Excessive Moisture
If you have excessive moisture such as puddles or standing water in your crawlspace, an unvented crawlspace may not be the best approach for your situation. In this case it is advisable to consult with a professional in your local area prior to converting your crawlspace.
In some cases excess moisture can be introduced through the same vents intended to relieve moisture. This can be especially problematic during summer months in warm humid climates. Regulated by the ground, crawlspace temperatures can be 20 degrees or more below the outdoor temperature. As warm humid outside air comes in, it cools to the crawlspace temperature. Since the ability of air to hold moisture decreases as its temperature decreases, the moisture in the air condensates onto the cooler surfaces in the crawlspace. You may notice drops of water on the underside of the floor, joists, supports or even on the ground. The vents intended to relieve moisture are actually causing this problem and if left unaddressed will result in mold, rot, or other damage.
STEP 2: Install a Vapor Barrier over the Ground
In this step you will seal off the ground to prevent moisture and any harmful gases, such as radon, from entering the crawlspace through the soil.
Use a quality vapor barrier such as ARMA FOIL-VB or 6 mil plastic to cover the ground. Overlap each sheet by roughly 6" and seal the seams with a high quality tape or glue. Allow enough excess to wrap and extend the vapor barrier up the foundation wall by roughly 12 inches. Adhere the vapor barrier to the foundation wall with glue, caulk, or foam.
STEP 3: Seal and Insulate the Foundation Wall
Closed Cell foam will both seal and insulate your foundation wall. In addition, using spray foam insulation on crawl spaces adds a moisture barrier to help keep moisture from wicking through the stone or concrete.
INSULATING CRAWL SPACE WALLS
Check your particular climate zone to determine how much foam should be applied to your foundation walls. Use foam board or plywood to cover over any existing vents. Apply a layer of closed cell foam to coat the entire foundation wall from the crawlspace side. Ensure that the foam overlaps the vapor barrier extending partially up the wall.
STEP 4: Seal and Insulate Rim Joists
The final step is to seal and insulate the Band/Rim Joists.
Prior to sealing and insulating the band joists, air and moisture are introduced through a variety of problem areas. Click on the image to the right to see a larger, detailed version.
Fortunately, all of the above problems can be addressed with one easy solution. Just apply closed cell spray foam over this entire area. Be sure to cover all seams to air seal and coat the band joist with 1-2 inches of crawl space spray insulation foam. Closed cell crawl space foam insulation also creates a moisture barrier and helps prevent condensation.
There are a few additional benefits of using spray foam insulation in unvented crawl spaces.